In ancient times the present Kalahandi district was part of South Kosals. It was princely state. After Independence of the Country, merger of princely state took place on 1st January, 1948. The princely state of Kalahandi was merged in Orissa along with other princely states in the 1st November, 1949. Subsequently,in 1962, Kashipur Police Station was taken out from this District and merged with Koraput. Kalahandi district occupies the South western portion of Orissa and is situated between 19 degree 3’N and 21 degree 5’N latitude and 82 degree 30E and 83 Degree 74’E langitude. It is bounded in the North by the District of Balangir and Nawapara, on the South by the District of Rayagada, on the West by the District of Nawarangpur and Raipur (Chhatisgarh) and on the East by the District of Rayagada and Boudh. The District Headquarters is at Bhawanipatna town which stands almost to the Eastern border. Kalahandi district has an area of 8,364.89 sq.km and ranks 7th among the 30 districts of Orissa. Forest occupies 4,964 of the total geographical area of the district, i.e. not cultivated area of the District in the year 1993 is 375752 Hec. In the same year, 11,602 hectors were left as fallow lands or cultivable waste land.
The district has two sub-divisions, 12 Police stations, five Tehsils, 13 Blocks, one Municipality, the two NACs., one treasure, five sub-treasuries of the 195 Gram panchayats and 2185 Villages.
Rainfall and Climate
The climate of the district is extreme. It is dry except during the monsoon . There are large varieties of day and night temperatures. The average annual rainfall of the district is 1378.20 mm . There is great variation in rainfall from year to year . The monsoon starts in late June and usually lasts until September . 90 % of rainfall received from June to September . August is the month with the highest number of rainy days . About 28 % of rainfall is received during the month . Drought is a general feature of this district .
Temperature and Humidity
There are big changes in day and night temperatures . In the summer season starts at the beginning of March . The maximum temperature is about 45 C ( 82 degrees F ) is the hottest month is May . The temperature in the direction of the second week of June, with the arrival of monsoon and monsoon season goes down stays cool . Mean daily minimum temperature in Celsius, relative humidity from June to December is generally recorded at 11 degrees as December is the coldest month . In the non- monsoon months ( 27 % ) is low . During August , the highest and the lowest is 27% ie 70 %, the lowest month is March . Northern plateau ( at 2150 MSL ) Nawapara district Komna also Rampur block of Sunabeda area ( at 2700 feet MSL ) is a Coller climate .
Soil and Land Classification
District of roughly five types of soils classified as below :
Phosphorus and nitrogen is separated into red laterite soil is found all over the district . Mostly foot hill and down small hills , heavy soil and Dharmgarh Tehsil phenomenon is common in Bhawanipatna . It is rich in nitrogen but poor in phosphorus and pottasium .
Is seen in Lanjigarh and Bhawanipatna tehsil Sandyloan soil .
Udanti, Utei and alluvial sandy area on the river bank and sandyloam of Sagada are spreading .
Dharmgarh and soil fertility is higher in Jaipatna tehsil .
Red soil, black soil , sand, loam , clay yellow with low percentages in the district are :
1. 31.68% Redsoil
2 . Black soil ( heavy ) 13.90 %
3 . Clay & sandyloam 54.44%
Telephone , large rivers like Mahanadi and Godavari rivers of Kalahandi from the tributories can be mentioned among the Indravati . However , by telephone, by far the longest and most important river of the district . River Telephone and Moter, Hati Sagada, retail , Uttei, Raul , Sundary, Undanti land tributories other rivers are also important . Most of the rivers dry during rain and heat is known . Indravati and Nagavali , two important rivers have their origin in the district Rampur Th .
Kalahandi district, nearly half of the total geographical area of 4,962 sq km was covered with forest. In recent times due to the denudation of forests has been considerable shrinkage.
Bauxite , Graphites , Manganeese, Iron and Quarz minerals available in the district . Of these, only commercialy bauxite and graphite have been exploited . Niamgiri inlarge sacle bauxite are found in the Lanjigarh block . Manganeese deposit in Koraput district Nawapara places along the iron ore district and is mostly found in Khariar plateau . But these poor grade ores and the economy is not considered suitable for exploitation . According to the National Council of Applied Economic Research , distrcit known deposits of minerals in the heavy mineral -based industries can not by themselves .
There are 3 major industries namely (1) Western Sugar and Chemical Industries Ltd., Dharamgarh all Division Bhawanipatna in Mathura, (2) Konark Growers Co-operativeMills Limited, Kesinga and (3) Spinning Bhawanipatna in Orissa Regional CooperativeOil Seeds Growers Federation Ltd.